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According to tradition, the end of the Trojan war and the beginning of the Trojan hero Aeneas 's journey when he escaped the Greeks with others in search of a new land. According to legend, Aeneas lands in Italy, marries Lavinia , the daughter of Latinus , king of the Latins. Alba Longa is founded. According to legend, Alba Longa was founded by Ascanius , the son of Aeneas. Etruscan civilization.

First evidence of Old Italic script. Rome was founded. According to Roman legend, Romulus was the founder and first king of Rome, beginning the Roman Kingdom. Numa Pompilius became the second King of Rome. Spartan immigrants found the colony of Taranto in Southern Italy. Tullus Hostilius became the third King of Rome. Byzantium was founded by Megarian colonists.

The lyric poet Stesichorus is born in Calabria in Southern Italy. Lucius Tarquinius Priscus was killed in a riot instigated by the sons of Ancus Marcius. The Senate accepted the regent Servius Tullius as king of Rome. The latter agreed to the overthrow and expulsion of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus and to a provisional constitution under which two consuls acted as a joint executive and a Curiate Assembly held legislative power, and swore never again to let a king rule Rome.

Lucius Junius Brutus was killed. Publius Valerius Publicola , returning to Rome with the spoils of war, was awarded the first Roman Triumph on March 1. The consul Publius Valerius Publicola promulgated a number of liberal reforms, including opening the office of consul to all Roman citizens and placing the treasury under the administration of appointed quaestors. In the face of a potential Sabine invasion, the Senate passed a senatus consultum authorizing the consuls to appoint a dictator , a magistrate who held absolute power during a national emergency.

The dictator would in turn appoint the Magister equitum , the commander of the cavalry. After a law allowing organization of the plebs tribe , the Plebeian Council was reorganized by tribes rather than curiae. Under popular pressure, the Senate increased the tribunes of the plebs from two to ten. During the first dictatorship of Cincinnatus , the Aequians staged an offensive, breaking a truce.

Cincinnatus defeated the Aquians at the Battle of Mount Algidus and after a triumph, returned to his farm after sixteen days. Resolutions of the Plebeian Council were given the full force of law subject to Senate veto. The second of two decemviri , specially-elected ten man commissions, issued the last of the Twelve Tables , the fundamental laws of the Republic. The Tribal Assembly was established, and granted the right to elect quaestors. Marriage between patricians and plebeians was legalized. The offices of the Tribuni militum consulari potestate were established.

A collegium of three patrician or plebeian tribunes , one each from specific Roman tribes the Titienses, the Ramnenses, and the Luceres , would hold the power of the consuls from year to year, subject to the Senate. The office of the censor , a patrician magistrate responsible for conducting the census in years without a consul , was established. Cincinnatus was called upon to accept a second dictatorship by the patricians to prevent Spurius Maelius from seizing power; the patricians suspected Spurius of using wheat to purchase the support of the plebeians, to set himself up as a king.

Gaius Servilius Ahala was appointed magister equitum in order to stop Maelius; following an attack by Maelius, Ahala slew him. Cincinnatus again resigned his dictatorship and returned to his farm after 21 days. Fidenae , an important trade post on the Tiber, was captured from the Veii. The Tribuni militum consulari potestate held office. The Senones sacked Rome. Lucius Sextius was elected the first plebeian consul. The office of Praetor , which took the judiciary responsibilities of the consul and could be held only by a patrician , was established.

The first plebeian dictator was elected. The first plebeian censor was elected. Samnite Wars : Rome marched against the Samnites , probably after an appeal from the Campanians. The Leges Genuciae were passed, banning a person from holding two offices at the same time, or during any ten-year period; charging interest on loans was also banned.

Samnite Wars : The Senate agreed a peace, following an appeal by the Samnite to a previous treaty of friendship. A law was passed which required the election of at least one plebeian censor every five years. Latin War : Rome defeated the Latin League armies. The first plebeian Praetor was elected. Samnite Wars : Rome declared war on the Samnites after their failure to prevent their subjects raiding Fregellae.

Battle of the Caudine Forks : After being trapped in a mountain pass near Caudium without a water supply, Roman forces were allowed to retreat by a Samnite army. Samnite Wars : The Etruscans laid siege to Sutri. Battle of Bovianum : A Roman force destroyed the majority of the Samnite army. Samnite Wars : The treaty of friendship between the Romans and Samnites was restored. The Greek tyrant Agathocles takes the title of king of Sicily. The Lex Ogulnia was passed, allowing plebeians to become priests. Samnite Wars : Rome declared war on the Samnites after an appeal by the Lucani.

Battle of Sentinum : A Roman army decisively defeated a numerically superior force of Samnites , Etruscans , Umbri and Senones in coalition at Sentinum. Samnite Wars : Roman and Samnite forces battled at Lucera. Battle of Aquilonia : A Roman army destroyed the majority of Samnite forces, probably in modern Agnone. Samnite Wars : Rome conquered and colonized the Samnite city of Venosa. Samnite Wars : The last effective Samnite resistance was eliminated. Agathocles dies, and democracy is restored in Syracuse due to his wish to not have his sons succeed him as king.

Conflict of the Orders : A secessio plebis took place. Taranto appealed to Epirus for aid against Rome. Pyrrhic War : An Epirote army of some 25, landed at Taranto. Battle of Heraclea : A Greek coalition force led by the Epirote king Pyrrhus of Epirus defeated a Roman army after their deployment of war elephants at Heraclea Lucania. Pyrrhic War : Pyrrhus withdrew with his army to Epirus.

The number of quaestors was raised from four to ten. The office of the praetor qui inter peregrinos ius dicit , a Praetor with jurisdiction over foreigners, was created. First Punic War : Sicily was organized as the province of Sicilia. Illyrian Wars : Rome invaded the territory of the Ardiaei. Illyrian Wars : The Ardiaei surrendered some territory, including strategically significant ports, to Rome, ending the war. The consul Gaius Atilius Regulus was killed. Illyrian Wars : Demetrius of Pharos fled to Macedonia.

Battle of Cannae : The Carthaginian general Hannibal decisively defeated a numerically superior Roman force at Cannae.

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Siege of Syracuse — BC : Roman forces breached the inner citadel of Syracuse and slaughtered its inhabitants. First Macedonian War : Rome and Macedonia signed the Treaty of Phoenice , according to which Macedonia renounced its alliance with Carthage in exchange for Roman recognition of its gains in Illyria.

Second Punic War : Carthage accepted Roman conditions for peace, including disarmament, a war indemnity of ten thousand talents, and the cession of Iberia , ending the war. The provinces of Hispania Ulterior and Hispania Citerior were organized. Second Macedonian War : Macedonia surrendered its conquests in Greece and agreed to pay a war indemnity, ending the war. Roman—Seleucid War : The Seleucid Empire signed the Treaty of Apamea , under which it surrendered all territory west of the Taurus Mountains to the Roman clients Rhodes and Pergamon and agreed to disarm its navy and pay a war indemnity of fifteen thousand talents of silver to Rome.

The Lex Villia annalis , which established minimum ages for high office and required a minimum of two years in private life between offices, was passed. Third Macedonian War : Rome declared war on Macedonia. Macedonia was divided into four districts subject to Rome. Third Punic War : Rome declared war on Carthage. The Lex Calpurnia was passed, establishing a Praetor -led court to hear appeals against extortionate taxes levied by governors in the provinces. Fourth Macedonian War : Andriscus was surrendered to Rome to be executed.

Third Punic War : Roman forces breached the city of Carthage , burned it, and enslaved its surviving inhabitants.

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The province of Macedonia was organized. The province of Africa was organized on captured Carthaginian territory. The province of Gallia Narbonensis was organized. The first Senatus consultum ultimum was passed, granting the consul Lucius Opimius emergency powers to defeat the partisans of Gaius Gracchus. Jugurthine War : Rome declared war on Numidia.

Gaius Marius was elected consul. Marius instituted the Marian reforms of the military , among them the establishment of a standing army and the recruitment of non-property owners. Marius was reelected consul. Battle of Arausio : A coalition of the Cimbri and Teutons inflicted a serious defeat on the Roman army at modern Orange. Some hundred thousand Roman soldiers were killed. The Second Servile War , another failed slave rebellion against the Romans, begins.

Battle of Aquae Sextiae : Rome decisively defeated the forces of the Teutons and Ambrones and killed some ninety thousand soldiers and civilians. Battle of Vercellae : An invasion of Italy by the Cimbri was decisively defeated by a numerically inferior Roman force. Some hundred thousand Cimbri soldiers and civilians were killed along with their king Boiorix. Marius was elected consul. Assassin hired by Marius's political allies Lucius Appuleius Saturninus and Gaius Servilius Glaucia beat to death Gaius Memmius tribune , a candidate for the consulship. The Marsic War ends in a Roman military victory, though the rest of Italians were granted rights.

Sulla's first civil war : The consul Sulla led an army of his partisans across the pomerium into Rome. First Mithridatic War : Roman forces landed at Epirus. First Mithridatic War : A peace was agreed between Rome and Pontus under which the latter returned to its prewar borders. Sulla's second civil war : Sulla landed with an army at Brindisi. Sulla's second civil war : Sulla was declared dictator. Second Mithridatic War : Murena withdrew from Pontus. The Third Servile War begins; one of the participants is the famous Thracian gladiator known as Spartacus.

Third Mithridatic War : Pontus invaded Bithynia. Their leader Spartacus was killed. The last of the Cilician pirates were wiped out by Pompey. Cicero was elected consul. Second Catilinarian conspiracy : A conspiracy led by the senator Catiline to overthrow the Republic was exposed before the Senate. The five conspirators present were summarily executed in the Mamertine Prison. Pompey joined a political alliance, the so-called First Triumvirate , with the consul Julius Caesar and the censor Marcus Licinius Crassus. Battle of Carrhae : A Parthian army decisively defeated a numerically superior Roman invasion force near Harran.

Crassus was killed. Gallic Wars : The last Gaulish rebels were defeated. Assassination of Julius Caesar : Caesar was assassinated in the Theatre of Pompey by a conspiracy of senators. The Second Triumvirate expired. He committed suicide.


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Cleopatra committed suicide, probably in Roman custody and by snakebite. The province of Egypt was organized. Augustus took the title pharaoh. Cantabrian Wars : Rome deployed some eighty thousand soldiers against the Cantabri in Iberia. The Senate granted Augustus the titles augustus , majestic, and princeps , first. Augustus indicated his nephew Marcus Claudius Marcellus Julio-Claudian dynasty as his chosen successor by marrying him to his only daughter Julia the Elder.

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The Roman client Amyntas of Galatia died. Augustus organized his territory as the province of Galatia. Coinage reform of Augustus : Augustus centralized the minting of and reformed the composition and value of the Roman currency. Marcellus died. Augustus married Julia to his general Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. Cantabrian Wars : The last major combat operations ended. The Cantabri and Astures were pacified. Raetia and Noricum were conquered and annexed to Rome. Germanic Wars : Roman forces crossed the Rhine into Germania.

Agrippa died of fever. Augustus married Julia to his general and stepson Tiberius. The Roman general Nero Claudius Drusus died from injuries sustained falling from a horse. Pannonia was annexed and incorporated into Illyricum. Augustus offered Tiberius tribunician power and imperium over the eastern half of the Empire. Tiberius refused, announcing his retirement to Rhodes.

Augustus was acclaimed Pater Patriae , father of the country, by the Senate. Augustus convicted Julia of adultery and treason, annulled her marriage to Tiberius , and exiled her with her mother Scribonia to Ventotene. Augustus allowed Tiberius to return to Rome as a private citizen. Gaius Caesar died in Lycia from wounds suffered in battle. Augustus adopted Tiberius as his son and granted him tribunician power.

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Augustus deposed Herod Archelaus , ethnarch in Samaria , Judea and Idumea, and organized the province of Judea on his territories. Publius Quinctilius Varus , the commander of Roman forces in Germania , committed suicide. Tiberius assumed command of Roman forces in Germania. Illyricum was divided into the provinces of Pannonia and Dalmatia. Tiberius was granted power equal to Augustus as co- princeps. Germanicus , son of Nero Claudius Drusus and adoptive son of Tiberius , was appointed commander of Roman forces in Germania. Germanicus and Tiberius's natural son Drusus Julius Caesar were sent to suppress mutinies in Germania and Pannonia , respectively.

Lucius Seius Strabo was appointed governor of Egypt. His son Sejanus remained as the sole prefect of the Praetorian Guard. Archelaus of Cappadocia , king in Cappadocia and a Roman client , died. Tiberius annexed his territory, organizing it as the province of Cappadocia. Tiberius annexed his territory to the province of Syria. Tiberius granted Germanicus imperium over the eastern half of the Empire.

Germanicus died in Antioch , possibly after being poisoned on Tiberius's orders. Tiberius granted Drusus Julius Caesar tribunician power, marking him as his choice as successor. Drusus Julius Caesar died, possibly after being poisoned by Sejanus or his wife Livilla. Tiberius retired to Capri , leaving Sejanus in control of Rome through his office. The Frisii hanged their Roman tax collectors and expelled the governor. Livia , Augustus's widow and Tiberius's mother, died. Sejanus was executed on Tiberius's orders. Tiberius invited Germanicus's son Caligula to join him on Capri.

Tiberius died. Tiberius Gemellus was murdered on Caligula's orders. Ptolemy of Mauretania , king of Mauretania and a Roman client , was murdered on Caligula's orders during a state visit to Rome. His slave Aedemon rose in revolt against Roman rule. The general Gaius Suetonius Paulinus was appointed to suppress the rebellion in Mauretania. Caligula was assassinated by the centurion Cassius Chaerea. Claudius restored the Judean monarchy under king Herod Agrippa. The territory of the former Mauretania was organized into the provinces of Mauretania Caesariensis and Mauretania Tingitana.

Claudius annexed Lycia into the Empire as a province. Odrysia was incorporated into the Empire as the province of Thracia. Claudius's wife Messalina was executed for conspiracy. Claudius married his niece, Germanicus's daughter Agrippina the Younger. Claudius adopted Agrippina's son Nero as his own son. Claudius died after being poisoned by Agrippina. Nero succeeded him as princeps. Claudius's young natural son Britannicus died, probably by poison. Agrippina died, probably murdered by her son Nero. Boudica , a queen of the Iceni , was appointed to lead a revolt of the Iceni and the Trinovantes against Rome.

Battle of Watling Street : Some eighty thousand soldiers and civilians among the Iceni and Trinovantes were killed, probably in the modern West Midlands , ending Boudica's revolt. Great Fire of Rome : A fire began which would cause massive property damage and loss of life over six days in Rome. Nero began construction of his large and extravagant villa the Domus Aurea. Pisonian conspiracy : Nero was informed of a broad conspiracy to assassinate him and appoint the senator Gaius Calpurnius Piso leader of Rome. Nero , then in hiding in the villa of the freedman Phaon freedman , was notified that the Senate had declared him an enemy of the state and ordered him brought to the Forum to be publicly beaten to death.

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He ordered his secretary Epaphroditos to kill him. Following his defeat by Vitellius , the commander of the Roman army on the lower Rhine , near modern Calvatone , and to prevent further civil war, Otho committed suicide. Vitellius was executed in Rome by troops loyal to Vespasian. Revolt of the Batavi : Following a series of battlefield reversals, Civilis accepted peace terms from the Roman general Quintus Petillius Cerialis.

Roman conquest of Britain : Roman forces entered modern Scotland. Siege of Masada : Roman forces breached the walls of Masada , a mountain fortress held by the Jewish extremist sect the Sicarii. Gnaeus Julius Agricola was appointed consul and governor of Britain. Vespasian died. He was succeeded by his son Titus.

The eruption of Mount Vesuvius spews massive amounts of volcanic gas , ash , and molten rock. Several Roman settlements, including Pompeii and Herculaneum , are annihilated and buried under colossal amounts of ashfall deposits and rock fragments. Titus died of fever.

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He was succeeded by his younger brother Domitian. Agricola was recalled to Rome. Domitian's Dacian War : Decebalus agreed to return all Roman prisoners of war and accept his status as a Roman client in exchange for an annual subsidy of eight million sestertii , ending the war. Saturninus was executed. Domitian was assassinated by members of the royal household.

Nerva was declared ruler of Rome by the Senate. Nerva adopted the general and former consul Trajan as his son. Nerva died. Trajan succeeded him. First Dacian War : Rome invaded Dacia. The Dacian king Decebalus escaped to the east. Nabatea was annexed to the Roman empire as the province of Arabia Petraea. The province of Dacia was organized. Roman—Parthian Wars : Trajan launched an expedition against Parthia.

Trajan's Column was erected in Trajan's Forum to commemorate the victory over Dacia. Trajan deposed the Armenian king Parthamasiris of Armenia , a Roman client , and organized the province of Armenia on his territory. The provinces of Mesopotamia and Assyria were organized on territory conquered from Parthia. Trajan captured the Parthian capital Ctesiphon and deposed its shah Osroes I in favor of his son Parthamaspates of Parthia.

Kitos War : Roman forces captured the rebel stronghold of Lod and executed many of its inhabitants. The Senate accepted the general Hadrian as ruler of Rome, following the appearance of documents indicating he had been adopted by Trajan. Osroes I deposed his son Parthamaspates of Parthia and replaced him as shah of Parthia.

Hadrian withdrew from the territories of Armenia , Assyria and Mesopotamia , allowing the return of their respective client monarchies. The construction of Hadrian's Wall at the northern border of Britain began. Hadrian arrived in Mauretania to suppress a local revolt. Hadrian travelled to Greece.

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